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Center of Public Finance and Governance is an analytical center founded to provide systematic, professional, non-partisan, unbiased expertise and an alternative view of the public finance and public administration situation in Ukraine.

Description

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Public finance research:

  • Budget process, budget planning. Analysis of the existing budget planning system and options for its improvement.
  • Analysis of revenues and expenditures of the budget (tax and customs policies, expenditure  policies, etc.)
  • Debt management policy, liquidity management issues.
  • Institutional, legislative and organizational changes, required to improve quality of public finance management.

Public administration research:

  • Issues, that directly influence efficiency of budget planning.
  • Institutional, legislative and organizational changes, required to improve the quality of public administration.

Centre’s news

Debt Sustainability

State Debt Review 2023 (full version)

Executive summary

In 2023, the combined state debt and state-guaranteed debt increased by 30.4% to $145.3 bn, representing 85% of the estimated GDP (up from 49% in 2021). The surge was predominantly fueled by a significant 49.1% rise in external debt, reaching $31.2 bn, while domestic debt experienced a more modest 10.0% increase, amounting to $3.8 bn. This disproportionate growth in external debt has altered Ukraine’s debt structure, with foreign exchange debt now constituting 73% of the total, up from 67% in 2022. 

The notable increase in Ukraine’s external debt to $31.2 bn was primarily attributed to $19.5 bn loan (or EUR 18 bn originally) from the EU’s Macro-Financial Assistance (MFA) package ($20.5 bn increase due to FX rate fluctuations and interests accrued). The MFA is expected to be succeeded by the Ukraine Facility Program, a EUR 50 bn fund, with EUR 38 bn set to be dispersed to the state budget over 2024-2027. Additional substantial contributions came from the IMF ($3.6 bn), IBRD ($4.8 bn) driven by projects like PEACE and INSPIRE, both featuring concessional terms and a grant component, and the Canadian government ($1.9 bn) under concessional terms, including a 4.5-year grace period and a 1.5% interest rate for tranches disbursed in 2023.

Ukrainian domestic government bonds (OVDP) brought a 32red casino reviewsnet inflow of .4 bn into the state budget (in contrast to an outflow of $4.2 bn in 2022), thanks to collaborative efforts by Ministry of Finance (MoF) and National Bank of Ukraine (NBU) aimed at revitalizing the local market, increasing primary market yields to 16-18%, and allowing banks to cover up to 50% of required reserves with benchmark OVDP. This resulted in a system-wide rollover rate of 150% in all currencies (67% in 2022). Strong demand from banks led to a cumulative increase of $4.7 bn in their bond portfolios over the year, reaching $17.3 bn (41% of total outstanding OVDP). The NBU attempted to encourage non-residents to reinvest OVDP funds in the primary market by allowing repatriation of OVDP interest after April 1, 2023 (previously banned). However, this only partially mitigated the outflow, resulting in a $0.4 bn reduction in their bond portfolio (compared to a $1 bn decrease in 2022) and accounting for 3% of total outstanding OVDP. 

The budget ran a deficit of $48.1 bn  (not considering foreign grants as a part of the budget revenues), amid large defense expenses and a limited ability to increase tax collection on a similar scale. In 2023, 52% of state budget expenditures went to the Ministry of Defense and an additional estimated 13% went to war-related security issues. The deficit was much higher than planned in the initially enacted Law on State Budget for 2023 ($35.4 bn), but foreign grants reduced it considerably – to $36.5 bn (20.6% of GDP). On average, expenditures exceeded budget revenues by $4.0  bn monthly – or $3.1 bn if foreign grants are considered as a part of budget revenues.

In total, 37% of budget expenditures (which reached $109.8 bn) in 2023 relied on external loans and grants. Another 5% were financed internally through the issuance of domestic government bonds. Only 56% were covered by budget revenues excluding foreign grants and 2% coming from changes in balances in the State Treasury accounts.

About 10.6% of GDP or $18.7 bn was directed to the service (interest $6.8bn and principal $11.9bn payments) of the  state  debt  in 2023. Most of it ($15.6 bn) was paid for domestic debt, while $3.2 bn went to foreign creditors.

Projections for 2024 estimate a similar debt service cost of 11.1% of GDP, totaling $20.8 bn. To address this, Ukraine contemplates the continuation of payment deferrals or restructuring, with a focus on fulfilling obligations to IFIs and other official creditors. While international financial aid, particularly the Ukraine Facility Program, is anticipated to play a crucial role in meeting credit needs of $38.6 bn in 2024, potential delays in fund inflows and the risk of reduced aid post-2025 pose challenges. Notably, the approval of grants for 2024 remains pending, emphasizing the importance of a balanced 32red sport reviewapproach in commercial debt treatment to restore sustainability, address liquidity needs, and secure private financing for post-war development.

Fiscal Digest

Fiscal Digest 2023 (executive summary)

● In 2023, Ukraine’s state budget deficit reached $36.5 bn (or 20.6% of GDP), broadly in line with original plans and 3.1 percentage points higher than in 2022 ($28.3 bn). Assistance from foreign partners was critical with grants of $11.6 bn representing 16% of total budget revenues. In addition, Ukraine received $30.9 bn in loans for budget financing in 2023. Net domestic bond issuance contributed $5.4 bn.
● Revenues (excluding grants) increased sharply compared to the previous year – by $20.2 bn or 49.1% y-о-y. Tax revenues rose by 12.1% on the back of the economy’s adjustment to the war, changes to the tax code, and effects from inflation. Non-tax revenues increased by more than 150% due to transfers from the NBU ($2.0 bn).
● Expenditures soared by 31.3% y-о-y to $109.8 bn, with military spending accounting for $57.4 bn alone. Additional expenses for security reached $14.0 bn. At the same time, expenditures decreased in the sector of Health care by 14% to $4.9 bn, in the Education sector by 8.6% to $1.7 bn and in the Social protection sector by 2.6% to $12.8 bn. Ukraine’s budget benefitted from the postponement of debt service on its commercial and part of public external debt, with interest payments reaching $8.1 bn in 2023.
● Total state debt (including guarantees) reached $145.3 at the end of 2023 – an increase of $33.9 bn or 30.4% vs. the previous year. At 85% of GDP, this is a sharp increase vs. 2021 when it was 49%. The structure of debt shifted significantly, with new external debt amounting to $31.2 bn and new domestic debt to $3.8 bn. As of end-2023, debt in foreign exchange accounted for 73% of the total.
● The 2024 deficit is expected to reach $38.6 bn as revenues are projected to decline to $43.5 bn (-40% vs. 2023) and expenditures to drop to $81.3 bn (-26%). Two key risks to the outlook are (i) higher military spending due to an escalation of the security situation; and (ii) revenue and financing shortfalls due to less assistance from international partners (currently planned to reach $37.0 bn).
Key

Budget

Draft Law on the State Budget for 2024: Key Features

On September 15th, the government submitted the second budget for a state of war to the Verkhovna Rada.

• What are the anticipated revenue increases and decreases?

• What expenditure priorities are outlined?

• How much is Ukraine’s national debt expected to grow in 2024?

• And what are the primary budget execution risks?

Budget Barometer

#Budget Barometer – December 2023

What happened to the Ukrainian budget in December?

• Was the revenue plan achieved?

• Was there enough international financing to cover the traditionally largest expenditures at the end of the year?

• What risks are emerging for budgetary stability, 32red sportsand what can be anticipated in the future?

Read about these and other budgetary issues in the Budget Barometer for December 2023

#Budget Barometer – November 2023

What happened to the Ukrainian budget in November?

• Was the revenue plan achieved?

• What were the main sources of revenue, particularly from key taxes?

• What risks are emerging for budgetary stability, 32red sportsand what can be anticipated in the future?

Read about these and other budgetary issues in the Budget Barometer for November 2023

#Budget Barometer – October 2023

What happened to the Ukrainian budget in October?

• Was the revenue plan achieved?

• What were the main sources of revenue, particularly from key taxes?

• What risks are emerging for budgetary stability, 32red sportsand what can be anticipated in the future?

Read about these and other budgetary issues in the Budget Barometer for October 2023

#Budget Barometer – September 2023

What happened to the Ukrainian budget in September?

• Was the revenue plan achieved?

• What were the main sources of revenue, particularly from key taxes?

• What risks are emerging for budgetary stability, 32red sportsand what can be anticipated in the future?

Read about these and other budgetary issues in the Budget Barometer for September 2023

#Budget Barometer – August 2023

What happened to the Ukrainian budget in August?

• Was the revenue plan achieved?

• Which types of economic activities contributed the most to corporate income tax?

• What risks are emerging for budget stability, and what can we expect in the future?

Discover these and other details of the budget’s implementation in the Budget Barometer for August 2023

#Budget Barometer – July 2023

What happened to the Ukrainian budget in July?

• Would the revenue plan have been met without international support?

• Which of the taxes missed the plan and why?

• Which additional risks arise for budget stability and what to expect going forward?

Discover these and other details of the budget’s implementation in the Budget Barometer for July 2023

#Budget Barometer – June 2023

What happened to the Ukrainian budget in June?

• What is the situation with tax revenues?

• Which taxes have met their targets and which have not?

• What are the additional risks to budget stability and what can we expect from new specialised draft laws?

Discover these and other details of the budget’s implementation in the Budget Barometer for June 2023

#Budget Barometer – May 2023

What happened to the Ukrainian budget in May?

• Which tax plan failed to meet its target again and why?

• What risks could affect the regularity of international support?

• What changes in budget legislation can be expected and how might it impact the budget system?

Discover these and other details of the budget’s implementation in the Budget Barometer for May 2023

#Budget Barometer – April 2023

What happened to the Ukrainian budget in April?

• Which taxes were on target and which were off?

• Is international support still stable?

• What are the risks to the sustainability of the budget system?

Discover these and other details of the budget’s implementation in the Budget Barometer for April 2023

#Budget Barometer – March 2023

What happened to the Ukrainian budget in March?

• What are the peculiarities of budget revenues?

• What is the impact of international cooperation on the sustainability of public finances?

• What changes can be expected in the near future and what risks could arise?

Discover these and other details of the budget’s implementation in the Budget Barometer for March 2023

#Budget Barometer – February 2023

What happened to the Ukrainian budget in February?

• Is the revenue plan meeting the deficit financing target?

• What are the expected changes in the public finance system and potential risks?

Discover these and other details of the budget’s implementation in the Budget Barometer for February 2023

#Budget Barometer – January 2023

What happened to the budget in January?

• How did 2023 begin in the realm of public finance?

• What was the role of international aid, both refundable and non-refundable?

• How much were domestic tax revenues, and how much was received in customs payments?

Discover these and other details of the budget’s implementation in the Budget Barometer for January 2023.

Social expenditures

Social expenditures: what and why the state finances in the first half of 2023

The prolonged full-scale war initiated by russia against Ukraine has led to catastrophic consequences in the lives and well-being of the Ukrainian population. Millions of people have been forced to abandon their homes and relocate to safer communities within the country or leave the country altogether. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR Ukraine), there are currently 6.2 million Ukrainian refugees worldwide. According to the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, in the first half of 2023, nearly 4.9 million citizens were registered as internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Ukraine. Among them, 1.3 million are elderly people, 1.1 million are children, and 200,000 are persons with disabilities. The World Bank estimates that 7.1 million people have fallen below the poverty line due to the loss of property and means of subsistence.

The UNHCR Ukraine reports that 32red casino reviews17.6 million people in Ukraine are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance and protection. State support, including funding for social protection programs during the war, plays a crucial role in ensuring the safety, dignity, and well-being of people in conditions of extreme complexity and instability.

Read more

Researches

Analysis of Mechanisms to Support Individuals in Difficult Life Circumstances

Summary

The research had a goal to analyze the mechanisms of social support for citizens who find themselves in a category of vulnerable groups, with special focus on people affected by the Chernobyl disaster, internally displaced persons, children, who have suffered from war, and veterans.

In the social protection system of Ukraine, the algorithm and results of supporting the people in need is not clearly defined. Support system of citizens primarily based on their status in the social protection schemes, rather than vulnerability criteria and actual needs. Social services are a more progressive tool of support, however, the government continues to give preference to cash payments as the main tool of support. One of the most common legislative guarantees is the provision of housing, but even before the full-scale invasion of russia, as a result of which thousands of Ukrainians were left completely or partially homeless, the government could not ensure the practical implementation of this guarantee. 

Legislation covering support for various categories, for example, persons who are victims of the Chernobyl disaster or children suffered from war, is outdated and does not meet their current needs. Children affected by the war with the russian federation do not have a clear and defined support mechanism from the state authorities. 

The government is more focused on supporting the urgent needs of IDPs, but certain areas of policy related to returning to the place of residence are neglected. The veterans’ support policy needs a clearer mechanism for determining the process of returning service personnel to civilian life with a list of the types of support they can count on and criteria for evaluating their effectiveness.

As recommendations, based on the research results, it is proposed to form a system of criteria that will determine which types of support will be the most effective for various vulnerable groups, considering an individual approach to assessing needs. It is important to link expenditures from the state and local budgets with indicators of their impact on solving actual problems of vulnerable groups. 

It is necessary to provide a connection between the motivational component and receiving benefits in order to encourage people to refocus receiving payments and compensation on receiving services, which from a practical point of view will have a more effective impact on overcoming difficult life circumstances. 

The existing system of social protection also 32red sport reviewneeds updating of the category of recipients of support and the types of benefits distributed to them, because the model of social protection for the majority of the population was established back in the times of the Ukrainian SSR.

In accordance with the challenges associated with the war with the russian federation and the return of servicemen to civilian life, it is necessary to standardize the list of benefits and develop a clear algorithm for their receipt, the impact of their implementation. 

There is also a need to develop support mechanisms for children affected by the war with the russian federation with an updated definition of obtaining status for this category of children. As part of the recovery from the consequences of the war, it is necessary to update and supplement the list of types of support that will motivate IDPs to return to the de-occupied territories of Ukraine when they becomes safer.